The International Literary Quarterly
Contributors

Shanta Acharya
Marjorie Agosín
Donald Adamson
Diran Adebayo
Nausheen Ahmad
Toheed Ahmad
Amanda Aizpuriete
Baba Akote
Elisa Albo
Daniel Albright
Meena Alexander
Rosetta Allan
María Teresa Andruetto
Innokenty Annensky
Claudia Apablaza
Robert Appelbaum
Michael Arditti
Jenny Argante
Sandra Arnold
C.J.K. Arkell
Agnar Artúvertin
Sarah Arvio
Rosemary Ashton
Mammed Aslan
Coral Atkinson
Rose Ausländer
Shushan Avagyan
Razif Bahari
Elizabeth Baines
Jo Baker
Ismail Bala
Evgeny Baratynsky
Saule Abdrakhman-kyzy Batay
Konstantin Nikolaevich Batyushkov
William Bedford
Gillian Beer
Richard Berengarten
Charles Bernstein
Ilya Bernstein
Mashey Bernstein
Christopher Betts
Sujata Bhatt
Sven Birkerts
Linda Black
Chana Bloch
Amy Bloom
Mary Blum Devor
Michael Blumenthal
Jean Boase-Beier
Jorge Luis Borges
Alison Brackenbury
Julia Brannigan
Theo Breuer
Iain Britton
Françoise Brodsky
Amy Brown
Bernard Brown
Diane Brown
Gay Buckingham
Carmen Bugan
Stephen Burt
Zarah Butcher McGunnigle
James Byrne
Kevin Cadwallander
Howard Camner
Mary Caponegro
Marisa Cappetta
Helena Cardoso
Adrian Castro
Luis Cernuda
Firat Cewerî
Pierre Chappuis
Neil Charleton
Janet Charman
Sampurna Chattarji
Amit Chaudhuri
Mèlissa Chiasson
Ronald Christ
Alex Cigale
Sally Cline
Marcelo Cohen
Lila Cona
Eugenio Conchez
Andrew Cowan
Mary Creswell
Christine Crow
Pedro Xavier Solís Cuadra
Majella Cullinane
P. Scott Cunningham
Emma Currie
Jeni Curtis
Stephen Cushman
David Dabydeen
Susan Daitch
Rubén Dario
Jean de la Fontaine
Denys Johnson Davies
Lydia Davis
Robert Davreu
David Dawnay
Jill Dawson
Rosalía de Castro
Joanne Rocky Delaplaine
Patricia Delmar
Christine De Luca
Tumusiime Kabwende Deo
Paul Scott Derrick
Josephine Dickinson
Belinda Diepenheim
Jenny Diski
Rita Dove
Arkadii Dragomoschenko
Paulette Dubé
Denise Duhamel
Jonathan Dunne
S. B. Easwaran
Jorge Edwards
David Eggleton
Mohamed El-Bisatie
Tsvetanka Elenkova
Johanna Emeney
Osama Esber
Fiona Farrell
Ernest Farrés
Elaine Feinstein
Gigi Fenster
Micah Timona Ferris
Vasil Filipov
Maria Filippakopoulou
Ruth Fogelman
Peter France
Alexandra Fraser
Bashabi Fraser
Janis Freegard
Robin Fry
Alice Fulton
Ulrich Gabriel
Manana Gelashvili
Laurice Gilbert
Paul Giles
Zulfikar Ghose
Corey Ginsberg
Chrissie Gittins
Sarah Glazer
Michael Glover
George Gömöri
Giles Goodland
Martin Goodman
Roberta Gordenstein
Mina Gorji
Maria Grech Ganado
David Gregory
Philip Gross
Carla Guelfenbein
Daniel Gunn
Charles Hadfield
Haidar Haidar
Ruth Halkon
Tomás Harris
Geoffrey Hartman
Siobhan Harvey
Beatriz Hausner
John Haynes
Jennifer Hearn
Helen Heath
Geoffrey Heptonstall
Felisberto Hernández
W.N. Herbert
William Hershaw
Michael Hettich
Allen Hibbard
Hassan Hilmi
Rhisiart Hincks
Kerry Hines
Amanda Hopkinson
Adam Horovitz
David Howard
Sue Hubbard
Aamer Hussein
Fahmida Hussain
Alexander Hutchison
Sabine Huynh
Juan Kruz Igerabide Sarasola
Neil Langdon Inglis
Jouni Inkala
Ofonime Inyang
Kevin Ireland
Michael Ives
Philippe Jacottet
Robert Alan Jamieson
Rebecca Jany
Andrea Jeftanovic
Ana Jelnikar
Miroslav Jindra
Stephanie Johnson
Bret Anthony Johnston
Marion Jones
Tim Jones
Gabriel Josipovici
Pierre-Albert Jourdan
Sophie Judah
Tomoko Kanda
Maarja Kangro
Jana Kantorová-Báliková
Fawzi Karim
Kapka Kassabova
Susan Kelly-DeWitt
Mimi Khalvati
Daniil Kharms
Velimir Khlebnikov
Akhmad hoji Khorazmiy
David Kinloch
John Kinsella
Yudit Kiss
Tomislav Kuzmanović
Andrea Labinger
Charles Lambert
Christopher Lane
Jan Lauwereyns
Fernando Lavandeira
Graeme Lay
Ilias Layios
Hiên-Minh Lê
Mikhail Lermontov
Miriam Levine
Suzanne Jill Levine
Micaela Lewitt
Zhimin Li
Joanne Limburg
Birgit Linder
Pippa Little
Parvin Loloi
Christopher Louvet
Helen Lowe
Ana Lucic
Aonghas MacNeacail
Kona Macphee
Kate Mahony
Sara Maitland
Channah Magori
Vasyl Makhno
Marcelo Maturana Montañez
Stephanie Mayne
Ben Mazer
Harvey Molloy
Osip Mandelstam
Alberto Manguel
Olga Markelova
Laura Marney
Geraldine Maxwell
John McAuliffe
Peter McCarey
John McCullough
Richard McKane
John MacKinven
Cilla McQueen
Edie Meidav
Ernst Meister
Lina Meruane
Jesse Millner
Deborah Moggach
Mawatle J. Mojalefa
Jonathan Morley
César Moro
Helen Mort
Laura Moser
Andrew Motion
Paola Musa
Robin Myers
André Naffis-Sahely
Vivek Narayanan
Bob Natifu
María Negroni
Hernán Neira
Barbra Nightingale
Paschalis Nikolaou
James Norcliffe
Carol Novack
Annakuly Nurmammedov
Joyce Carol Oates
Sunday Enessi Ododo
Obododimma Oha
Michael O'Leary
Antonio Diaz Oliva
Wilson Orhiunu
Maris O'Rourke
Sue Orr
Wendy O'Shea-Meddour
María Claudia Otsubo
Ruth Padel
Ron Padgett
Thalia Pandiri
Judith Dell Panny
Hom Paribag
Lawrence Patchett
Ian Patterson
Georges Perros
Pascale Petit
Aleksandar Petrov
Mario Petrucci
Geoffrey Philp
Toni Piccini
Henning Pieterse
Robert Pinsky
Mark Pirie
David Plante
Nicolás Poblete
Sara Poisson
Clare Pollard
Mori Ponsowy
Wena Poon
Orest Popovych
Jem Poster
Begonya Pozo
Pauline Prior-Pitt
Eugenia Prado Bassi
Ian Probstein
Sheenagh Pugh
Kate Pullinger
Zosimo Quibilan, Jr
Vera V. Radojević
Margaret Ranger
Tessa Ransford
Shruti Rao
Irina Ratushinskaya
Tanyo Ravicz
Richard Reeve
Sue Reidy
Joan Retallack
Laura Richardson
Harry Ricketts
Ron Riddell
Cynthia Rimsky
Loreto Riveiro Alvarez
James Robertson
Peter Robertson
Gonzalo Rojas
Dilys Rose
Gabriel Rosenstock
Jack Ross
Anthony Rudolf
Basant Rungta
Joseph Ryan
Sean Rys
Jostein Sæbøe
André Naffis Sahely
Eurig Salisbury
Fiona Sampson
Polly Samson
Priya Sarukkai Chabria
Maree Scarlett
John Schad
Michael Schmidt
L.E. Scott
Maureen Seaton
Alexis Sellas
Hadaa Sendoo
Chris Serio
Resul Shabani
Bina Shah
Yasir Shah
Daniel Shapiro
Ruth Sharman
Tina Shaw
David Shields
Ana María Shua
Christine Simon
Iain Sinclair
Katri Skala
Carole Smith
Ian C. Smith
Elizabeth Smither
John Stauffer
Jim Stewart
Susan Stewart
Jesper Svenbro
Virgil Suárez
Lars-Håkan Svensson
Sridala Swami
Rebecca Swift
George Szirtes
Chee-Lay Tan
Tugrul Tanyol
José-Flore Tappy
Alejandro Tarrab
Campbell Taylor
John Taylor
Judith Taylor
Petar Tchouhov
Miguel Teruel
John Thieme
Karen Thornber
Tim Tomlinson
Angela Topping
David Trinidad
Kola Tubosun
Nick Vagnoni
Joost Vandecasteele
Jan van Mersbergen
Latika Vasil
Yassen Vassilev
Lawrence Venuti
Lidia Vianu
Dev Virahsawmy
Anthony Vivis
Richard Von Sturmer
Răzvan Voncu
Nasos Vayenas
Mauricio Wacquez
Julie Marie Wade
Alan Wall
Marina Warner
Mia Watkins
Peter Wells
Stanley Wells
Laura Watkinson
Joe Wiinikka-Lydon
Hayden Williams
Edwin Williamson
Ronald V. Wilson
Stephen Wilson
Alison Wong
Leslie Woodard
Elzbieta Wójcik-Leese
Niel Wright
Manolis Xexakis
Xu Xi
Gao Xingjian
Sonja Yelich
Tamar Yoseloff
Augustus Young
Soltobay Zaripbekov
Karen Zelas
Alan Ziegler
Ariel Zinder

 

President, Publisher & Founding Editor:
Peter Robertson
Vice-President: Glenna Luschei
Vice-President: Sari Nusseibeh
Vice-President: Elena Poniatowska
U. S. General Editor: Neil Langdon Inglis
London Editor/Senior Editor-at-Large: Geraldine Maxwell
New York Editor/Senior Editor-at-Large: Meena Alexander
Washington D.C. Editor/Senior
Editor-at-Large:
Laura Moser
Argentine Editor: Yamila Musa
Deputy Editor: Allen Hibbard
Deputy Editor: Jerónimo Mohar Volkow
Deputy Editor: Bina Shah
Advisory Consultant: Jill Dawson
General Editor: Beatriz Hausner
General Editor: Malvina Segui
Art Editor: Lara Alcantara-Lansberg
Art Editor: Calum Colvin
Deputy General Editor: Jeff Barry

Consulting Editors
Shanta Acharya
Marjorie Agosín
Daniel Albright
Meena Alexander
Maria Teresa Andruetto
Frank Ankersmit
Rosemary Ashton
Reza Aslan
Leonard Barkan
Michael Barry
Shadi Bartsch
Thomas Bartscherer
Susan Bassnett
Gillian Beer
David Bellos
Richard Berengarten
Charles Bernstein
Sujata Bhatt
Mario Biagioli
Jean Boase-Beier
Elleke Boehmer
Eavan Boland
Stephen Booth
Alain de Botton
Carmen Boullossa
Rachel Bowlby
Svetlana Boym
Peter Brooks
Marina Brownlee
Roberto Brodsky
Carmen Bugan
Jenni Calder
Stanley Cavell
Hollis Clayson
Sarah Churchwell
Marcelo Cohen
Kristina Cordero
Drucilla Cornell
Junot Díaz
André Dombrowski
Denis Donoghue
Ariel Dorfman
Rita Dove
Denise Duhamel
Klaus Ebner
Robert Elsie
Stefano Evangelista
Orlando Figes
Tibor Fischer
Shelley Fisher Fishkin
Peter France
Nancy Fraser
Maureen Freely
Michael Fried
Marjorie Garber
Anne Garréta
Marilyn Gaull
Zulfikar Ghose
Paul Giles
Lydia Goehr
Vasco Graça Moura
A. C. Grayling
Stephen Greenblatt
Lavinia Greenlaw
Lawrence Grossberg
Edith Grossman
Elizabeth Grosz
Boris Groys
David Harsent
Benjamin Harshav
Geoffrey Hartman
François Hartog
Molly Haskell
Selina Hastings
Beatriz Hausner
Valerie Henitiuk
Kathryn Hughes
Aamer Hussein
Djelal Kadir
Kapka Kassabova
John Kelly
Martin Kern
Mimi Khalvati
Joseph Koerner
Annette Kolodny
Julia Kristeva
George Landow
Chang-Rae Lee
Mabel Lee
Linda Leith
Suzanne Jill Levine
Lydia Liu
Margot Livesey
Julia Lovell
Thomas Luschei
Willy Maley
Alberto Manguel
Ben Marcus
Paul Mariani
Marina Mayoral
Richard McCabe
Campbell McGrath
Jamie McKendrick
Edie Meidav
Jack Miles
Toril Moi
Susana Moore
Laura Mulvey
Azar Nafisi
Martha Nussbaum
Tim Parks
Clare Pettitt
Caryl Phillips
Robert Pinsky
Elizabeth Powers
Elizabeth Prettejohn
Martin Puchner
Kate Pullinger
Paula Rabinowitz
Rajeswari Sunder Rajan
James Richardson
François Rigolot
Geoffrey Robertson
Ritchie Robertson
Avital Ronell
Carla Sassi
Michael Scammell
Celeste Schenck
Daniel Shapiro
Sudeep Sen
Hadaa Sendoo
Miranda Seymour
Daniel Shapiro
Mimi Sheller
Elaine Showalter
Penelope Shuttle
Werner Sollors
Frances Spalding
Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak
Julian Stallabrass
Susan Stewart
Rebecca Stott
Mark Strand
Kathryn Sutherland
John Whittier Treat
David Treuer
David Trinidad
Marjorie Trusted
Lidia Vianu
Victor Vitanza
Marina Warner
David Wellbery
Edwin Williamson
Michael Wood
Theodore Zeldin

Assistant Editor: Sara Besserman
Assistant Editor: Ana de Biase
Assistant Editor: Conor Bracken
Assistant Editor: Eugenio Conchez
Assistant Editor: Patricia Delmar
Assistant Editor: Lucila Gallino
Assistant Editor: Sophie Lewis
Assistant Editor: Krista Oehlke
Assistant Editor: Siska Rappé
Assistant Editor: Naomi Schub
Assistant Editor: Stephanie Smith
Assistant Editor: Emily Snyder
Assistant Editor: Robert Toperter
Assistant Editor: Laurence Webb
Art Consultant: Verónica Barbatano
Art Consultant: Angie Roytgolz

 

FEATURED INTERVIEW:
WILLIAM TYNDALE AND THOMAS MORE—THE ETERNAL CONTROVERSY
Interlitq Interviews Neil Langdon Inglis U.S. General Editor.
 

 



Interlitq: Tell us about The Tyndale Society, and your connection to it.

NLI: The Tyndale Society honors the memory of William Tyndale (1494-1536), the first published English translator of the Bible. The modern-day Tyndale era began with the "Let There Be Light" exhibition at the British Library in London in 1994, and other events commemorating the quincentennial of Tyndale's birth. Twenty-three years later, the Society has a distinguished record in organizing conferences and events, and has two flagship publications, "Reformation," in addition to the "Tyndale Society Journal (TSJ)," of which I am editor. I am soon to begin work on the 49th edition of the TSJ. Our magazine discusses Tyndale's contributions to the English language and to civilization itself, and Tyndale is the center of the wheel from which the spokes radiate; we can and do cover all relevant aspects of Tudor and Reformation history. I have written articles on Michael Servetus (1509-1553), WT's Spanish contemporary who discovered the pulmonary circulation of the blood, who met the same fiery end as Tyndale, and with whom his life shares commonalities. With any story we write, Tyndale is waiting in the wings somewhere!

Interlitq: When did your association with the Society begin?

NLI: I attended the 1996 Tyndale Society Conference at Hertford College, Oxford. My first appearance as commentator/reviewer in the TSJ dates to April 2000 (TSJ15), and I took over the editorship in Autumn 2009 (TSJ37). Society founder Professor David Daniell (author of the landmark Tyndale biography which ushered in a new era of Tyndale scholarship1) was determined to rescue Tyndale from the shadows and he fulfilled this objective with sterling success2. My colleagues on the TSJ editorial board carry on in this tradition, and as editor I am ably assisted by Society President Mary Clow, and our tech/DTP expert Dave Steele. We refuse to allow Tyndale to languish in footnotes and bibliographies.

Interlitq: Are you seriously implying that Tyndale’s story was swept under the rug for five whole centuries?

NLI: Not exactly. Our commentator Ramona Garcia has profiled public attitudes toward Tyndale during the Victorian era, a time during which history buffs took advantage of rail and seaborne transportation to engage in Tyndale tourism, by visiting sites (the Nibley Knoll monument) associated with Tyndale's childhood near Stinchcombe in Gloucestershire, and with the tragic end to his life (Vilvoorde, in Belgium). There was keen interest in Tyndale in those days, reflecting national confidence and pride in English history and culture.

Interlitq: Why did attitudes shift in the 20th century?

NLI: Growing secularization did not help Tyndale's cause, although one can be a nonbeliever and a WT enthusiast. Celebrity atheists Chris Hitchens (interestingly, Hitchens was a Tyndale family name, which WT used as an alias) and Richard Dawkins have stressed the importance of early Bible history in the UK, and Dawkins has recommended the study of the KJV3, which draws heavily on Tyndale.

Overall, however, Victorian triumphalism faced a lean time in the 20th century. The entire Victorian approach to judging success—the "great man" of history school—came under a cloud of revisionism, some of it well-deserved. Yet too many babies were thrown out with the bathwater.

Interlitq: And new generations brought in new heroes?

NLI: Tyndale's nemesis Thomas More (never out of fashion, of course) reached new audiences in the 1960s with the Robert Bolt play "A Man for All Seasons." The airbrushed portrayal of More as a man of conscience and principle took hold in that era of protest and demonstration. We at the Tyndale Society know More's darker side; the fanaticism, the heresy-hunting, the persecution of honorable men like William Tyndale, in whose arrest and execution More almost certainly played an indirect hand.

Interlitq: Thomas More fans have no trouble at all keeping TM firmly in the spotlight. Why do you suppose that More enjoys this competitive advantage in publicity?

NLI: I should point out that we at the Tyndale Society enjoy cordial relations with the international Thomas More community (there have been joint public debates). Various factors account for More’s apparent dominance. Thomas More is able to draw upon the support of a network, a machine. The closest analogy I can give you is drawn from academia; think of More as the tenured professor who enjoys respect by virtue of his publications but also as a matter of status. William Tyndale is the independent scholar, who may have lost out in a tenure battle or political quarrel, and who is banished to the wilderness. He may be the equal or superior of the insider, but he will never gain the respect that it is his due, because of well-entrenched snobbery and the herding instinct. The majority prefers safety in numbers...

I should add that thanks to Google Alerts we know that Tyndale has fans all over the world, if perhaps not so much in the UK (a prophet without honour in his own country). There are news stories from Africa and the United States. We hear from Tyndale supporters in Japan, from any country you care to name. And that is how it should be, for the Tyndale message is a universal one.

Interlitq: But isn't it true that Thomas More’s saintly image has lately come under assault from an unexpected source?

NLI: Hilary Mantel is continuing to work on her Thomas Cromwell project, "Wolf Hall," and is rumored to be covering the story of William Tyndale's exile and King Henry's short-lived efforts to reach out to the expatriate English translator. Mantel's unflattering portrayal of Thomas More has sown disquiet in the TM community: historian John Guy puts ultimate blame on John Foxe (an Elizabethan historian dismissed as a propagandist in some quarters). Truth be told, More damns himself in his very own screeds against Tyndale, whom he viewed as in some respects the chief threat against Christendom.

Interlitq: And if Mantel is sympathetic to the plight of the religious Reformers, how do you feel about that?

NLI: John Guy agrees that Mantel spins a good yarn, yet fears that undergraduates cannot distinguish between her novels and history4. My own impression, which may seem conflicted, is that Mantelization could lead to the wrong kind of publicity, to over-exposure. I know from my own researches that Google hits on Thomas Cromwell are overwhelmingly associated with "Wolf Hall"; but we need proper, non-fictional history to fill in the gaps in the historical record in the lives of Cromwell, Tyndale, and other reformers.

Interlitq: And is that what you at the TSJ plan to do in the future?

NLI: When the truth is uncovered about the early lives of Tyndale, Cromwell, and Servetus (currently fogged with mystery), we at the TSJ will be there to report these stories to the world. We will continue to review publications relevant to Tyndale (histories, translations). I have pushed our magazine in a more multi-media direction; we investigate Tyndale memorials (statues), plays, movies... and we have printed contributions from young people. Not everything received is publishable, and sometimes overzealous contributors will, with the best of intentions, recycle myths that have since been discredited. We are careful historians but our aim is to inspire interest, not strangle it at birth. I am always keen to find new reviewers—especially those who do justice to new books, not simply by pouncing on typos (anyone can do that), but by developing lines of inquiry which the author may have hinted at, yet not properly explored. When I retire from my own career as a staff translator, I expect to devote a great deal of time to Tyndalian research.

1https://www.amazon.com/William-Tyndale-Biography-David-Daniell/dp/0300068808

2The William Tyndale documentary available here shows Daniell at his magnificent best.

3 "I think that it is an important part of our culture to know about the Bible, after all so much of English literature has allusions to the Bible (…)”. https://pjmedia.com/faith/2017/06/14/richard-dawkins-kids-should-read-the-bible-in-public-schools/

4https://www.theguardian.com/books/2017/may/31/students-take-hilary-mantels-tudor-novels-as-fact-hay-festival

Featured Interviews