O sea, para el pensamiento patriarcal, occidental, y moderno que ha construido la cosmovisión que divide el mundo en dos partes: masculino y femenino.
Este logos falo céntrico sigue funcionando como un sistema de valores simbólicos, psicológicos y antropológicos universales. Hay un gobierno masculino que está lejos de cambiar, pero, ¿qué pasaría si se instaurase un matriarcado? No es de hecho la idea de Irigaray, aunque este libro trate de establecer un genio femenino oculto y olvidado durante toda la historia de la humanidad.
Hablemos claro, el problema más urgente es “cómo vamos a afrontar el futuro”. Desde dónde estamos pensando ese futuro y con qué instrumentos, en ese sentido, la crítica de Irigaray busca “descolonizar” el conocimiento dominado hasta ahora por hombres que han excluido desde siempre a la mujer.
Desde los griegos el pensamiento-logos ha sido inventado por hombres, negando a su otra parte un rol protagónico, transformándola en una adversaria, una extranjera, un objeto oscuro de deseo (una divisa de intercambio y no de conocimiento), que es y será sin duda una de las razones de las continuas guerras por hacerse del poder.
Una manera de proteger esta supremacía y seguir adueñándose de la subjetividad femenina se da a través del ejercicio de la violencia.
Born to a lower middle-class family in Etterbeek, Brussels, Hergé began his career by contributing illustrations to Scouting magazines, developing his first comic series,The Adventures of Totor, for Le Boy-Scout Belge in 1926. Working for the conservative Catholic newspaper Le Vingtième Siècle, he created The Adventures of Tintin in 1929 at the advice of its editor Norbert Wallez. Revolving around the actions of boy reporter Tintin and his dog Snowy, the series’ early installments – Tintin in the Land of the Soviets, Tintin in the Congo, and Tintin in America – were designed as conservative propaganda for children. Domestically successful, after serialisation the stories were published in book form, with Hergé continuing the series and also developing both the Quick & Flupke and Jo, Zette and Jocko series for Le Vingtième Siècle. Influenced by his friend Zhang Chongren, from 1934 Hergé placed far greater emphasis on conducting background research for his stories, resulting in increased realism from The Blue Lotus onward. Following the German occupation of Belgium in 1939, Le Vingtième Siècle was closed but Hergé continued his series in Le Soir, a popular newspaper controlled by the Nazi administration.
After the Allied liberation of Belgium in 1944, Le Soir was shut down and its staff – including Hergé – accused of having been collaborators. An official investigation was launched, and while no charges were brought against Hergé, in future years he repeatedly faced accusations of having been a traitor and collaborator. With Raymond Leblanc he established Tintin magazine in 1946, through which he serialised new Adventures of Tintin stories. As the magazine’s artistic director, he also oversaw the publication of other successful comics series, such as Edgar P. Jacobs‘ Blake and Mortimer. In 1950 he established Studios Hergé as a team to aid him in his ongoing projects; prominent staff members Jacques Martin and Bob de Moor greatly contributed to subsequent volumes of The Adventures of Tintin. Amid personal turmoil following the collapse of his first marriage he produced Tintin in Tibet, his personal favourite of his works. In later years he became less prolific, and unsuccessfully attempted to establish himself as an abstract artist.
Hergé’s works have been widely acclaimed for their clarity of draughtsmanship and meticulous, well-researched plots. They have been the source of a wide range of adaptations, in theatre, radio, television, cinema, and computer gaming. He remains a strong influence on the comic book medium, particularly in Europe. Widely celebrated in Belgium, a Hergé Museum was established in Louvain-la-Neuve in 2009. His work nevertheless remains controversial, having been criticised for instances of antisemitism and racism.
Maurice Polydore Marie Bernard Maeterlinck (also called Comte (Count) Maeterlinck from 1932; [mo.ʁis ma.tɛʁ.lɛ̃ːk] in Belgium, [mɛ.teʁ.lɛ̃ːk] in France; 29 August 1862 – 6 May 1949) was a Belgian playwright, poet, and essayist who was a Fleming, but wrote in French. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1911 “in appreciation of his many-sided literary activities, and especially of his dramatic works, which are distinguished by a wealth of imagination and by a poetic fancy, which reveals, sometimes in the guise of a fairy tale, a deep inspiration, while in a mysterious way they appeal to the readers’ own feelings and stimulate their imaginations”. The main themes in his work are death and the meaning of life. His plays form an important part of the Symbolist movement.